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writing and Alzheimer

writing sources

reading during writing

COST European Networks

writing & subtitling

writing center

inputlog

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Research projects
  • Writing and Alzheimer
  • Writing from muliple sources in professional setting (NRO, NWO and FWO Research Foundation)
  • European Cost Networks
  • Reading during writing (collaboration Staffordshire University & UA BOF)
  • Live subtitling (University of Antwerp: BOF)
  • Quality Assessment of Digital Educational Materials (QuADEM, Minerva)
  • Inputlog: Logging writing (Flanders Research Foundation and UA BOF)
  • Previous projects
  •   Writing and Alzheimer

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    Cognitive writing process characteristics in Alzheimerís disease
    PostDoc researcher: Mariëlle Leijten
    Promotors: Luuk Van Waes & Koen Vandenbempt, University of Antwerp
    Funding: Flanders Research Foundation
    Period: 2014-2016
    Budget: 270.000 euro

    It is generally acknowledged that the current state of AD research needs an interdisciplinary approach to create new perspectives. This research project aims to test the complementary diagnostic power of a new tool assessing cognitive and linguistic aspects that characterize the process of written language production in Alzheimer's disease (AD). By adding a complementary process dimension to study written language production, we hope to further improve quality, efficiency and effectivity of this potential diagnostic tool. The process approach should allow us to describe and analyse online written data from a continuous and temporal perspective, focusing on motor, cognitive, and linguistic aspects in a descriptive writing task, i.c. describing a picture depicting a situation. In a controlled experimental study involving patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild AD and a healthy control group, we will evaluate the main process characteristics as derived from keystroke logging (and eye tracking) during the execution of a monitored task.
    In sum, it is our aim:

  • describe and test differences between healthy elderly and cognitively impaired patients on the basis of a selection of writing process variables (inter- and intrapersonal characteristics);
  • test the diagnostic accuracy with a selection of writing process variables (for discriminating AD from healthy elderly).
  • more information

      Writing from multiple sources

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    Track Changes: Textual Scholarship and the Challenge of Digital Literary Writing
    PhD researchers: Floor Buschenhenke and Lamyk Bekius
    Promotor University of Amsterdam: Karina van Dalen-Oskam, Huygens ING (KNAW)
    Promotors University of Antwerp: Luuk Van Waes, MariŽlle Leijten & Dirk Van Hulle
    Funding: Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, The Netherlands
    Period: 2018-2023
    Budget: 650.000 euro

    The study will focus on three main questions:

  • How can we apply existing methods and theories of textual scholarship to analyze digital literary writing processes and in which ways will the analysis of digital writingthese processes enrich the existing methods and theories?
  • How do writing process dynamics (e.g. pauses and revisions) enable us to describe writing strategies?
  • How can we systematically extract intermediate versions of a born-digital text and how can we apply intelligent digital text analysis on these text versions and createcreating new knowledge about the genesis of texts and the creative process?
  • more information

    LIFT. Improving pre-university students' performance in academic synthesis tasks with Level up Instructions & Feedback Tool
    PhD researcher: Nina Vandermeulen
    PostDoc researcher: Elke Van Steendam
    Promotor: Gert Rijlaarsdam (University of Antwerp & Amsterdam)
    Co-promotors: Luuk Van Waes (University of Antwerp), MariŽlle Leijten (University of Antwerp) & Huub van den Bergh (University of Utrecht)
    Funding: Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, The Netherlands
    Period: 2015-2020
    Budget: 750.000 euro

    Providing valid feedback on studentsí writing (process and product) and subsequent adaptive instruction is difficult for teachers. LIFT will provide progress feedback and instruction, based on national baseline data (including five grades: pre-university Grade10-12 Ė BA1-2). This data will provide the (1) feedback information (Ďtext and process scalesí), and (2) scales for adaptive modelling instruction (texts and processes). It also serves as the baseline for the intervention effects.

    Three intervention studies (dependent variables: text processing and text quality) will test effects of:

  • Feedback, varying (a) the object (texts versus process), (b) information (absolute versus relative) and subsequently;
  • Object of adaptive strategy instruction (process versus text), based on proven strategy instruction programs.
  • more information

    writing from multiple digital sources in a professional context
    PostDoc researcher: Mariëlle Leijten
    Promotors: Luuk Van Waes & Paul Matthyssens, University of Antwerp
    Funding: Flanders Research Foundation
    Period: 2010-2013
    Budget: 250.000 euro

    Writing a business text, e.g. a report for a merger, is a very complex activity. Previous writing research had lead to various well-known writing process models. However, these models are primarily based on educational environments and single texts. Professional writers on the other hand often use multiple (digital) sources to succesfully write their business texts. It is important, especially in this digital age, in which (written) communication performs an important role, to describe these writing competences. This project, addresses the following research question:
    What writing processes and strategies are involved when professional writers write business texts from multiple (digital) sources?

    During this project we will perform three research studies:

  • In study 1 we describe the activities of professional writers when writing in their organisational setting (explorative-etnographic approach).
  • In study 2 we focus on writing processes of professional writers in Ďreal-timeí (descriptive-cognitive approach).
  • In study 3 we analyze the cognitive processes that are involved when writing from multiple sources on a very fine-grained level (experimental-cognitive approach). [more information will follow in a later stage]
  • The complementarity of the research approach in the three studies is very important in this project. We strive to use a macro, meso and micro approach on the dynamic of writing processes:

  • ethnographic social context information (macro),
  • ecologically valid writing process data (meso),
  • fine-grained experimental process data (micro).

  • The combination of these multiple methods and perspectives generates output that make it possible to compare findings from one study with the other in order to describe the full dynamic of professional writing. As such, it has added value both from a theoretical (writing models) an a methodological perspective (writing process research). Also more practical implications can be aimed at for both writing software programs and developing future educational curricula (traditional and lifelong learning).

    more information

      reading during writing

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    The influence of text representation on the reading-during-writing process
    Promotors: Luuk Van Waes & MariŽlle Leijten, University of Antwerp | Flemish Research Association
    Funding: NOI BOF UA 2010, University of Antwerp, Belgium
    Researchers: Melissa Patchan, Milou de Smet & Elise Drijbooms
    Budget: 170 000 euro
    Period: 2011-2015

    Professional writers frequently interrupt the text production process to monitor their text produced so far. So far, this process of ''reading during writing'' has not been studied. However, recent technological developments enable us to study reading behavior during writing. In our research we explore how (re)reading might shift the cognitive orientation of the writing process and the relation between reading and writing on the one hand and reading and revising on the other.

    more information

    The influence of the text produced so far on writing processes of professional writers.
    Promotors: MariŽlle Leijten & Luuk Van Waes, University of Antwerp | David Galbraith, Staffordshire University
    Funding: Collaboration Staffordshire University
    Budget: 8000 euro
    Period: 2008-2011

    In this research we investigate how professional writers manage the balance between monitoring previous text an generating further text, writers are asked to generate sentence completions while at the same time monitoring and correcting errors in the sentence stem. Previous research has found that writers vary widely in the extent to which they prioritise the sentence completion part of the task or the error correcting part of the task. This study will use a modified version of this task to examine whether theses differences are related to the working memory capacity of writers and to individual differences in self-monitoring style. Eye movements will be analysed to determine how writers allocate their attention during the task. Data will be used to calculate an index of the writers' processing style.

    more information

      COST European Networks

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    Collaboration of Aphasia Trialists (CATs)
    ISCH COST Action IS1208| European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technological Research
    General coordinator: Dr Marian Brady & Dr Ali Myzoon, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Belgian representative and member of the Management Committee (2012-2016)
    Funding: European Commission
    Period: 2012-2016

    Aphasia, a language problem due to stroke, affects the understanding and expression of spoken and written language. Communication with families, friends and the wider community may be severely affected. Altered social interaction isolates the person with aphasia and impacts on their emotional wellbeing. Aphasia contributes to poorer functional recovery, mobility, discharge destination and return to employment. With an aging population and improved stroke survival, the societal and economic burden of aphasia will rise. Effective management and rehabilitation of aphasia is vital.
    Aphasia research faces methodological and infrastructural challenges. Typically it remains language, region and discipline specific limiting the efficiency, strength and broader relevance of any research. This Action aims to establish a network of leading European multidisciplinary aphasia investigators in rehabilitation, social science, linguistics and language research.
    This collaborative network will enhance knowledge, skills and methodology relating to aphasia research. Consensus activities will facilitate international synergy between members in aphasia assessment & diagnosis. Data sharing activities will support enhanced prognosis and rehabilitation of aphasia. In addition, this Action will foster and coordinate the development of high quality aphasia research activity which will address the needs of people with aphasia and their families, health and social care providers and voluntary groups

    more information

    Strengthening Europeans' capabilities by establishing the European literacy network
    ISCH COST Action IS1401 | European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technological Research
    General coordinator: Prof. Dr. Rui Alvez, University of Porto - Portugal
    Member of Management Committee and Belgian Coordinator: Prof. dr. Luuk Van Waes (2014-2018) Funding: European Commission
    Period: 2014-2018

    Capabilities are not only abilities that reside inside humans, but they also comprise the political, social, and economic environment. Literacy is a capability whose fulcrum is far away from the individual, depending crucially on societal forces that can hinder or promote human development. The efficiency of this promotion is critically constrained by the availability of accurate knowledge. Knowing about literacy is contingent upon an interdisciplinary web of expertise that can, within a reasonable timeline, produce that sort of knowledge. Such networks already exist in Europe, but needs to be sustained so that it can face the demands of the new digital era. Through this Action, reading and writing research communities across Europe are joining, integrating their findings, and aligning their agendas so that they can:

    1. develop an integrated and inclusive approach to foundational literacy across Europe;
    2. devise a comprehensive framework of developmental aspects of literacy and education in a digital world; and
    3. further improve literacy technologies.
    This will be valuable for promoting citizensí interdependence, participation, and innovation, which are key assets to a united and diverse Europe. For that, Europe needs a Literacy Network via which capabilities can be strengthened to all of its citizens.

    more information | proposal (pdf)

      writing & subtitling

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    Accuracy and optimisation of live subtitling
    Promotors: L. Van Waes, M. Leijten, A. Remael & E. Desnerck
    Researcher: Ide Verhelst/ Jan Craenen
    Funding: Antwerp University Association (Artesis University College: COF-AUHA BOF UA 2010)
    Budget: 80 000 euro
    Period: 2010-2014
    More information: Transmedia

    The study looks into the text reduction that takes place when respeakers produce subtitles on the basis of live comment. In an experimental setting several reduction modi have been created to get a better insight on the process of reduction and the delay that is associated with it. Also the correctness of the subtitles will be analyzed.

    Text reduction in live subtitling with speech recognition
    Promotors: L. Van Waes, M. Leijten, A. Remael & B. Dewulf
    Researcher: Bieke Luyckx
    Funding: Antwerp University Association (COF-AUHA BOF UA 2008)
    Budget: 20 000 euro
    Period: 2009-2010
    More information: Transmedia

    The study looks into the text reduction that takes place when respeakers produce subtitles on the basis of live comment. In an experimental setting several reduction modi have been created to get a better insight on the process of reduction and the delay that is associated with it. Also the correctness of the subtitles will be analyzed.

      writing center

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    QuADEM - Quality Assessment of Digital Educational Materials about professional writing skillsEU Minerva | 229759 - CP -1-2006-1- BE - MINERVA - MPP
    Co-ordinator: prof. dr. L. Van Waes (Universiteit Antwerpen)
    Partners: University of Nijmegen, University of Ghent, University of Zurich, Pedagogik Sweden, University of LŲdz, Vergouwen Overduin Amsterdam, Stroomt Utrecht
    Researcher: Liesbeth Opdenacker
    Period: 2006-2009
    Budget: 520 000 euro
    More information: www.scribani.org



    The new three-year project of the Scribani group is called QuADEM. The goal of this project is to develop a method for Quality Assessment of Digital Educational Materials in the area of professional and academic writing skills. The concept of the Quality Method integrates various quality assessment perspectives, methods, tools and materials.

    more information

      inputlog

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    EarlyWritePro: Developing methods for understanding early writing through analysis of process dysfluencies
    Promotor Nottingham Trent University: Mark Torrance
    Promotors University of Antwerp: Luuk Van Waes, Erik van Horenbeeck & MariŽlle Leijten
    Other partners: Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen (Iowa State University), Rianne Conijn (Tilburg University), Djuddah Leijen (University of Tartu), Guido Nottbusch (University of Potsdam), Vibeke RÝnneberg (University of Stavanger), Per Henning Uppstad (University of Stavanger) Period: 2014-2016
    Funding: EARLI, Emerging Field Groups
    Budget:19 400 euro
    More information: EFG (EARLI:Emerging Field Groups)


    Fluent transcription Ė the ability to perform the motor, spelling and syntactic operations necessary to construct a sentence without undue hesitation Ė is important for maintaining studentsí motivation and skill development. As importantly, where and when a young writer pauses provides valuable information about what they have and have not learned: An accurate completed sentence can hide significant underlying bottlenecks.

    Teachers in typical classrooms cannot systematically monitor students writing processes. Writing timecourse data, from keyboard or writing tablet, offers potential for automatic extraction of important diagnostic information, thus providing earlier and more precise identification of writing difficulties.

    This potential will not be realised, however, without step-change in the computational and statistical methods used to interpret writing timecourse data. These present at least four challenges. (1) Statistical inference from writing timecourse data must handle complex multilevel and multi-distributional data. (2) Real-time handwriting traces require extensive pre-processing and this is difficult to perform automatically. (3) Routine collection of keystroke or digitised handwriting gives for ďbig dataĒ, with associated analytical challenges (and potential benefits). (4) Computational-linguistic methods for syntactic markup must handle noisy and fragmented text.

    Writing Process Analysis Tools for Chinese: Creating an instrumental basis for contrastive research
    Promotor: Luuk Van Waes, University of Antwerp
    Period: 2014-2016
    Funding Flemish Research Foundation (FWO), Belgium
    Budget:17 500 euro
    More information: www.inputlog.net


    Inputlog is a keystroke logging tool to monitor written language production, developed at the University of Antwerp (www.inputlog.net) and used worldwide. Inputlog can handle most Western alphabets, including for instance Greek or Sami, without any other tuning than the selection of the appropriate regional setting and keyboard layout. But no easy way exists to represent the large number of Chinese logograms on a keyboard. However, there is a growing demand for tools to study the Chinese language and this includes a request to broaden the possibilities of Inputlog, both from Western researchers who study Chinese as from Chinese writing researchers.

    Merging writing process data with lexica
    Promotor: Luuk Van Waes, University of Antwerp
    Co-promotors: Vťronique Hosten & Lieve Macken (University College Ghent) | MariŽlle Leijten (University of Antwerp)
    Period: 2010-2012
    Funding Flemish Research Foundation (FWO), Belgium
    Budget:27 000 euro
    More information: www.inputlog.net

    During the last 20 years writing research has focused explicitly on the analysis of writing processes. More recently, logging programs (like Inputlog) enabled researchers to record process data (e.g. keystrokes & pauses) in much more detail without interfering the cognitive activities. In the current project we aggregate the logged process data from the letter level (keystroke) to the word level by merging them with lexica and Naturally Language Processing tools. This creates a very valuable basis for more linguistically oriented writing process research.

    WritingPro: A Knowledge Center for Writing Process Research
    Promotor: MariŽlle Leijten, Dept. Management, University of Antwerp
    Researchers: Luuk Van Waes & MariŽlle Leijten
    Periode: 2010-2012
    Funding: BOF, University of Antwerp
    Budget: 7 500 euro

    This project aims at developing a Knowledge Center for Writing Process Research (WritingPro) in order to offer a digital platform to writing process research. The main aims of the Knowledge Center are to bring together methodological knowledge about writing process research and to create a database for writing process data.

    more information



      previous research

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    The European Research Network on Learning to Write Effectively
    COST Proposal nįIS0703 | European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technological Research
    General coordinator: Dr. Denis Alamargot, Laboratory LMDC-CNRS, University of Poitiers - France
    Coordinator WG4: Prof. dr. Luuk Van Waes (2008-2011) Belgian Coordinators: Dr. Luuk Van Waes & Dr. MariŽlle Leijten, University of Antwerp (2008-2012)
    Funding: European Commission
    Period: 2008-2012

    It is mainly through writing that knowledge is created and shared across boundaries of culture. A key objective is to improve our understanding of how written production is mastered and how this learning process can be made more effective for each and every European citizen, especially children at school and adults in the workplace.
    Given the diversity of educational systems and languages, it is important to build a common multidisciplinary research programme, sharing theoretical, methodological and educational resources. This research programme needs to focus on four complementary areas: rget="_blank"> more information



      previous research

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    The European Research Network on Learning to Write Effectively
    COST Proposal nįIS0703 | European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technological Research
    General coordinator: Dr. Denis Alamargot, Laboratory LMDC-CNRS, University of Poitiers - France
    Coordinator WG4: Prof. dr. Luuk Van Waes (2008-2011) Belgian Coordinators: Dr. Luuk Van Waes & Dr. MariŽlle Leijten, University of Antwerp (2008-2012)
    Funding: European Commission
    Period: 2008-2012

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    A short overview of previous research projects.

    Live subtitling with speech recognition: procedures for quality improvement
    Promotors: L. Van Waes, M. Leijten, A. Remael & B. van de Veer
    Researcher: Tijs Delbeke
    Funding: Antwerp University Association
    Budget: 25 000 euro
    Period: 2007-2008
    More information: www.ua.ac.be

    Development of a competence classification system and database

    Co-ordinators: L. Van Waes, K. Soudan, E. Faucompret
    Researchers: Isabelle Werbrouck & Hilde De Vleeschhauwer
    Period: 2006-2008
    Funding: OOP-Project, University of Antwerp
    Budget: 90 000 euro

    The faculty of Applied Economics of the University of Antwerp wants to develop a system to classify competencies that relate to their curriculum. It is the aim of the project to develop a knowledge base by interviewing the different stake-holders that are engaged directly or indirectly in the education of the students at the faculty. Competencies will be classified by different groups: knowledge, skills, behavior and attitude. Competencies, in addition, are categorized according to: scope and goal, curriculum, learner, and instructional process. During the process general guidelines will be developed and a database will be implemented to facilitate the implementation of this process in other faculties.

    more information

    The study looks into the efficiency of the use of speech recognition in live subtitling for television, and the cognitive writing processes they involve. Logging software is used for the analysis of subtitling procedures, in which a respeaker makes use of speech technology to produce subtitles following both the block and the scrolling methods. The ultimate purpose of the project is to improve logging and to elaborate a procedure for the quality improvement of live subtitling.

    Using speech recognition for live subtitling: Procedures for quality improvement
    Promotors: L. Van Waes, M. Leijten, A. Remael & B. van de Veer
    Academic Association Antwerp & Flemish Radio- and Television Network (VRT)
    Researcher: Tijs Delbeke
    Funding: Antwerp University Association
    Budget: 25 000 euro
    Period: 2007-2008

    Speech technology nowadays serves as a valuable means to provide real-time captioning for live television programs. The Flemish public television (VRT) makes ample use of this innovative technique which has, however, its limitations. The project's goal is to improve accuracy and speed of intralingual subtitling through speech recognition and to help developing an effective training program for the operators (respeakers) involved in the process of transferring audio-input into good subtitles. Special attention will be paid to the cognitive load that is caused by this type of subtitle production.

    more information

    Development of a logging tool for writing research
    Promotor: prof. dr. L. Van Waes, University of Antwerp
    Academic staff members: dr. Nico Verlinden & dr. MariŽlle Leijten
    Period: 2005-2008
    The project was funded by the Karel de Grote Hogeschool, Antwerpen
    Budget:15 000 euro
    More information: www.inputlog.net


    A point of particular interest in writing research is the logging of the writing processes. Existing software programs make it possible to register, reconstruct and analyze online writing processes on several levels. However, these logging tools are or developed for specific applications, or are not adapted to the current Windows environment. Besides, neither of these logging tools have integrated the logging of the speech recognition mode.
    Therefore, we are developing a registration program that can easily be used in various Windows environments. We would like to be able to log every input mode of the computer: keyboard, mouse & speech. A logging tool with these characteristics would make it easier to describe the writing process data and would make it possible to analyze them in more detail and more precisely involving more participants.
    At this stage of the development of the logging tool we focus on the optimalization of Inputlog by integrating parsing techniques and the addition of new analyses.

    The development of a multilingual corpus of writing processes
    Promotor: Prof. dr. L. Van Waes, Dept. Management, University of Antwerp
    Researchers: Nico Verlinden, Luuk Van Waes & MariŽlle Leijten
    Periode: 2007-2009
    Funding: BOF, University of Antwerp
    Budget: 7 500 euro
    More information: http://www.inputlog.net

    During the last 20 years writing research has focused explicitely on the analysis of writing processes. More recently, logging programs enabled researchers to record process data (e.g. keystrokes&pauses) in much more detail without interfering the cognitive activities. In this project we want to initiate an online corpus of multilingual writing processes. Also an XML-schema will be designed to create a basis for a common standard in this domain.

    more information

    The influence of Voice Recognition on the Writing Process: Cognitive and Stylistic Effects of Speech Technology on Writing Business Texts

    Promotor: prof. dr. L. Van Waes
    Onderzoekers: Ivy Ackerman & Thomas Quinlan
    Periode: 2002-2004
    Fonds/Opdrachtgever: BOF/NOI-project van de Universiteit Antwerpen
    Budget: Ī 110 000 euro

    In this research project we focus on the one hand on elements that characterise the writing processes by comparing the writing processes of writers with different learning styles and different writing experience. On the other hand, we would like to contribute to the fundamental theory building on cognitive writing processes by describing universal cognitive processes raised in our study.

    In a first study we explored the writing behaviour of initial users of speech recognition systems. By opposing people WITH dictating experience to people with NO previous dictating experience, we found that there is not only a difference in the amount of speech used, but also in the organisation of the writing process. Writers with NO previous dictating experience, for example, use more speech and use it in a more constant pattern than writers WITH dictating experience.

    SRIBANI: Developing a European Writing Center
    (European Union, 2002-2004) - Budget Ī 300 000,00 EUR

    Promotor: prof. dr. L. Van Waes, University of Antwerp
    Partners: University of Nijmegen - The Netherlands, KTH Stockholm - Sweden, University of Warsaw, Poland
    Academic staff member: Liesbeth Opdenacker
    Period: 2003-2005
    Scribani was funded as a Minerva project (Socrates) by the European Union
    Budget Ī 300 000 euro

    More information: http://www.scribani.org

    The European educational system is increasingly taking into account individual learning styles and promoting self-guided learning and reduced contact hours, a trend that is also apparent in communication and language teaching: institutions specialized in this field are developing improved learning environments.

    Co-ordinating efforts with four other European institutions, we will jointly develop and deploy a common platform for a modular, multi-lingual online writing center specializing in business, technical and academic communication, which enables students to train their writing and reading skills. Specifically, the project aims at improving the current writing skills training programs by:

    • Developing a vision on teaching writing skills online, optimized for the European context.
    • Developing an effective online didactical toolset that reinforces and complements traditional classroom techniques.
    • Developing a European network of institutes that co-develop this toolset and deploy it in a teaching context.
    • Developing a program to introduce the online writing platform in the classroom, facilitating its adoption by both teachers and students.

    These goals are technically supported by developing (1) an XML-based repository with multi-lingual learning modules, evaluation components and supporting writing tools; (2) a template-based authoring environment in which the teaching staff creates the learning modules; and (3) a browser-based language training environment for the students. The solution is based on an open architecture that allows integration with other online learning tools and environments.

    The influence of marked hyperlinks on the reading process in a foreign language: a cognitive approach

    Promotor: prof. dr. L. Van Waes
    Academic staff member: Isabelle De Ridder
    Period: 2001-2003
    The project was funded as a BOF/NOI (New Research Initiatives) project by the University of Antwerp Budget: Ī 110 000 euro

    More information: http://www.ua.ac.be/isabelle.deridder

    This research project focuses on experimental research that aims at examining the impact of highlighted hyperlinks on the foreign language reading process, incidental vocabulary learning and overall text comprehension.

    The influence of Voice Recognition on the Writing Process: Cognitive and Stylistic Effects of Speech Technology on Writing Business Texts

    Promotor: prof. dr. L. Van Waes
    Academic staff member: MariŽlle Leijten
    Period: 2000-2002
    The project was funded as a BOF/NOI (New Research Initiatives) project by the University of Antwerp, 2000-2002
    Budget: Ī 105 000 euro

    More information: http://www.ua.ac.be/marielle.leijten

    It has been shown that the use of word processors and dictating devices as writing modes influences the organization of the writing process in a particular way. Voice recognition as a new writing mode also influences the writing process. In this research project we study the way in which voice recognition as a new writing mode influences the writing process.

    Now that the voice recognition systems have improved to the point that they become more than acceptable, it's the moment to start a study to analyze the writing process in this mode. So far, there is little knowledge about the experience of writers who already use speech-input devices. The first part of the project dealt with the adaptation processes of initial users and in the second part writing processes in different writing modes are compared.

    Results: After an adaptation period, people writing with voice recognition systems seem to develop a hybrid mode between dictating and writing with keyboard and mouse.

    DILESCE: A Digital Writing and Reading Center

    Promotor: prof. dr. L. Van Waes
    Academic staff member: Liesbeth Opdenacker
    Period: 2000-2002
    The project was funded as a STIHO project (New Research Initiatives) by the Flemish Government (Education), 2001-2003
    Budget: Ī 120 000 euro

    More information: http://www.Calliope.be

    Calliope, the muse of writers, is the name of the online writing center that is being developed at the University of Antwerp. The main objectives of Calliope are: to create a digital platform that enables students to train their writing skills in different languages; to develop a number of exemplary modules, e.g. meeting minutes, summaries; to evaluate the added value of the modules from a didactic, scientific and business communication angle. This two-year project is funded by the Ministry of the Flemish Community in order to stimulate innovation in higher education (STIHO) and is a co-operation between Mercator Hogeschool Gent and UFSIA, Universiteit Antwerpen.

    Data collection of speech material as a basis for the development of a Dutch speech recognition system

    Creating a digital platform for the 'Algemeen Nederlandse Spraakkunst' (ANS, Standard Dutch Grammar)

    Development of a selection procedure and screening for communication managers

    Searching and revision strategies of professional and non-professional writers

    Inventory of technical possibilities and limitations of language technology